What are the symptoms and recommended tests for Obesity?

Obesity can be thought of as a chronic disease which can have a negative effect on the body. Some medical problems like hormone imbalances & neurotransmitter deficiencies contribute to obesity. It can significantly shorten an individual’s life span and people with morbid obesity are at a risk of developing a number of serious problems. As such, obesity can be considered as one of the greatest public health challenges of our time. Several causes for obesity and factors involved are as follows:

  • If an individual takes more calories than they can burn, they will gain weight.
  • Physical inactivity can be strongly correlated with weight gain among people.
  • Genetic factors may cause the changes in appetite and fat metabolism that lead to obesity.
  • Some people have the habit of eating more during different emotions like, stress, boredom, sadness and anger. This can also result into getting obese.

Health problems associated with Obesity

  • Sleep apnea
  • Certain types of cancers due hormonal associations
  • Heart disease
  • Depression ( can be a cause and effect)
  • Type 2 diabetes Melli ’tis
  • Liver disease
  • High blood pressure
  • Joint disease

Recommended tests

Health history of the patient – A physician reviews the patient’s weight history, exercise habits, weight-loss efforts and eating patterns.
A physical exam – It includes measuring the height of the person, mapping heart rate, blood pressure levels and body temperature.
Body Mass Index – It helps in determining a person’s overall health risk and the level of the obesity.
Blood tests – Some of the common blood tests include a lipid profile including cholesterol test, liver function test, a fasting glucose and a thyroid test. Hormonal studies maybe needed in addition.

Treatment

Everyone wants to be fit and maintain a good health. For patients with diabetes, a consult with health professionals to understand and make changes in their eating habits is wise. The treatment for an individual depends upon the level of their obesity and overall health. Your physician can advise you, if any medical treatment is required. Eat more fiber and proteins and less fat and carbs. Use olive oil for cooking. Take in calories as per your BMI and burning you do in a day. Eat small light frequent meals rather than v large fatty few meals.

Advise – Burning fat with exercise deals with emotional stress, and exhilarates your mind and body so we would advise you to maintain a healthy body weight, eat a well-balanced diet and exercise regularly.

What do you need to know about high CRP?

CRP is a substance produced by the liver in response to inflammation. C Reactive Protein in medical terms is also called high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and Ultrasensitive C-reactive protein. The protein is a marker of low-grade inflammation and its levels can be elevated due to the existence of any inflammatory condition in the body. It can be caused by a wide variety of conditions, from infection to cancer, and can result in cardiovascular diseases such as heart stroke, etc.

What does it mean to have a high CRP?

It can be caused due to plethora of conditions including pregnancy, infections and cancer. The physician believe that high levels of C-reactive protein in the blood increases the chances of a heart disease and attack. High levels of CRP also indicate the development of diabetes in an individual. If your result shows a high CRP levels, it would be appropriate to consult your physician for further tests which maybe required.

What is CRP test?

It is done to measure the level of inflammation in your body (i.e. CRP). Though a CRP cannot show where the inflammation is actually, or what is causing it; he may advise you some tests to identify these issues.

What does C- reactive protein results indicate?

  • A reading of less than 1 mg/L indicates that you are having at a lower risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • A reading between 1-2.9 mg/L indicates you are at intermediate risk.
  • A reading higher than 3 indicates you of increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • A reading above 10 mg/L maybe found in following conditions:
    1. Bone infection
    2. Inflammatory bowel disease
    3. Tuberculosis
    4. Cancer
    5. Other autoimmune diseases

Standards of Testing in a Clinical Lab

Efficient testing on any eqpt requires scheduled running of controls, standards and calibration. Once these are in order only then should one run tests on it. Or else how would you know the report is correct? And procuring these controls standards and calibrators have a cost, from 6000 ( with a shelf life of 2 weeks after opening) for a simple haematology counter for a simple test like CBC to much more for others! Is your lab round the corner or in an outhouse of a nursing home doing it? Be safe & sure before you decide as your life depends on that blood sample you give! I do not even recommend home collection in large numbers as this is bound to compromise the sample. It’s best to walk down to your lab, talk to the pathologist and give your sample. He/she might even be able to talk to your doc to know what’s in his mind about you! Of course reports can be emailed for convenience.

Let’s debunk the pathology myths

Pathology is a branch of medical science which primarily focuses on the origin, nature and cause of disease. It involves the examination of tissues, organs, blood and body fluids in order to diagnose the disease. Many major advances have been made by pathologists from the past few years, for example, in the successful treatment of cancer, ensuring safe blood transfusions, developing vaccines against infectious diseases, etc.

Pathology plays a vital role throughout our lives, from pre-conception to post mortem. It falls under various specialities and each of these specialities has a different appeal and combination of laboratory and clinical work. The main specialities of pathology are as below:

  • Histopathology (the study of disease in human tissue through surgery, biopsy, or autopsy.)
  • Medical microbiology (the study of infection), immunology & molecular biology PCR techniques)
  • Chemical pathology ( the study of the biochemical basis of disease)
  • Haematology (the study of disorders of the blood)

Debunking the pathology myths

Results are instant
Some people believe that laboratory test results are all about a matter of few minutes – it’s not quite that simple though. It takes time to analyze the samples for pathologists. In fact the guy promising instant results might not be doing his job! There is always a prioritization done for testing. Urgent reports are provided to those more sick and serious. Some tests are routine and results could be provided the next day. Sometimes, the procedure of the test itself might be time consuming and need more time. For example tissues need to be processed for 14 hrs and thereafter blocks prepared, cut, stained and interpreted. Its obvious that this would take 2 days atleast in most cases.
Technological advances in the medical laboratories have made it possible to come up with the much quicker results, but they aren’t instant though.

It is all about blood tests

Although it is the most common sample required by the pathology labs, but pathology laboratories test wide variety of samples. These samples can be urine, saliva, sputum semen and other bodily fluids. It can be tissue extracted via biopsy.

General Practitioners are pathologists

Patients usually assume that their general practitioner performs the tests on their samples.
Pathologists are MDs who do their post graduation after basic medical MBBS degree from a medical school in India. In the USA all MDs are done after medical school. No degree is given soon after medical school in USA; these are awarded after a straight on ward MD in Anatomic and Clinical Pathology or any other field of medicine for that matter. Therefore a pathologist has done an MD in Lab Medicine and hence is a specialist trained in it. Some MBBS doctors go on to do an MD in microbiology only (field which entails study and isolation of infectious microbes i.e germs/bugs) and some MBBS doctors do exclusively clinical biochemistry which is study of biochemical tests. While microbiologists and biochemists are not able to interpret tissue changes and cancer under microscope, the MD pathologists can do all fields of Lab Medicine as they are trained in all fields of lab medicine including autopsy study.A pathologist runs a lab with help of lab technicians whom they train. These technicians directly are trained by the pathologist to do most tests on the machines/ manually. The pathologist also ensures that the technicians run quality controls on their machines on a scheduled basis and that all machines are calibrated from time to time. It is essential to get performance checks done or else any machine will give you some test result which you cannot rely upon. The quality of kits and reagents as well as maintenance of these machines is the responsibility of the pathologists. Microscopy is exclusively interpreted by a pathologist.

Pathology Lab in Mohali (Chandigarh), India

Amulya Labs Chandigarh, India is here to improve patient health with safe, hygienic, efficient, timely, equitable laboratory practices. The mission of Amulya Labs is to have a healthier population with screening and diagnostic tests. We have a strong foundation of knowledge, skill and state-of-the-art facilities and are recognized for excellence in Histopathology and Clinical Laboratory diagnosis.